Methods of drug administration:
There are Different Methods of drug administration that are used to introduced the drugs inside the body. Each route has its own specific purposes, advantages and disadvantages.
- Route of administration:
A route of administration is the way or a path thorough which a drug or other substances are taken into the body.
Methods of different routes:
There are two methods:
- Enteral Routes.
- Parenteral routes.
- Enteral Routes:
Enteral routes are used to give the drugs through gastrointestinal tract into the body.
- Forms of enteral routes:
There are three forms of enteral routes.
- Oral routes:
Oral drug administration is a process by which drugs are taken through the mouth by ailimentary tract.Drugs that are taken orally may be in solid or liquid form.
Orally medication is easy to take.It is the pain less, safe ,less expansive and effective route for drug administration.You can take medicines by yourself, skills are not required.
It is the most suitable method for gastrointestinal tract infections because oral drugs are absorbed along the gastrointestinal tract.
Orally drugs are sometime unsuitable,cause vomiting and slower in action that’s why are not suitable in emergencies.Distasteful and irritant drugs are difficult to take e.g, chloramphenicol.Absorption of orally drugs may be unpredictable e.g, streptomycin is a variable drug that is not absorbed.
- Orally dose forms:
Tablets capsules Pastes
Liquids syrups Powders
- Sublingual routes:
Some drugs are taken under the tongue or in the mouth as smaller tablets until they end.
In this method drugs are absorbed quickly and give fastest response.It is costless, convenient and self medicated method.It is helpful in emergencies,e.g in high BP cases.
A limited quantity of drugs can be given.Distasteful and sour drugs are difficult to take.Due to distastefull drugs may cause irritationor disturbing in oral mucous.
- Rectal routes:
Drugs are given through injections that are injected into rectum for medical purposes.
Medication by this route is convenient for patient than oral route.Drugs are fastly absorbed as some veins of rectum are directed to blood circulation. In this method Patient not feel vomiting and first pass effect is less in this route
If rectum of patient is filled with fecal material then absorption of the drugs is doubtful. Sometimes it may cause swelling or pain at injected site.It has slow process of action.
- Parenteral routes:
Some drugs are given through injections instead of capsules and syrups.These drugs that are injected must be free from bacteria or other micro-organisms.
Routes of injections:
- Intravenous routes:
In it,Injections are given into the veins directly to the patient slowly within 15-20 minutes.
Larger volumes of drugs are given. It is very useful in emergencies because of fastest action and drugs directly reach to the blood circulation and give quick response. In this method, to avoid from irritation , irritants are also given within the drugs.
Excess of drugs by this route through veins can cause irritation in the veins. Irritation in the veins can cause swelling and pain in the walls of veins due to blood clotting. Only fluid forms of drugs are injected by this route.
- Intramuscular routes:
Intramuscular injections are injected deeply into the large skeletal muscles of the body.
The chances of an overt tissue reaction are low.Drugs are given without injury. Larger volume of drugs are injected.This is a simple method and easy to inject the drugs.In this method no need to find veins or fat inside the body.
Patient feel pain while injected through this routes.If it is not injected gently it may cause bleeding or pain from injected site. It also cause allergical infections.If injections are administered at wrong site then drugs are waste that are injected.
- Subcutanous routes:
In this method, the injections are injected under the skin or into the thick layer of fat.
This method is valid and safe.In this method,no deep insertion of the injection is needed so the patient can take these injections by himself \ herself easily .No specific skills are required.Drugs that are not cause irritation and water soluble drugs are injected in it.
It is a very painful method. A limited quantity of drugs can be injected.While it may cause serious injury or infections in the skin. It also cause death of tissues in the body.
- Otic routes:
In this method drugs are used for the treatment of inflammated or infected ears by giving drugs directly to the infected ears.It als used to cure the injury or relief pain of ear.
In this route A higher dose of antibiotics are given directly at the infected site.It is cost less method then systemic route.Patients feel better after 15-20 minutes of medication. Drugs ate directly given to the ear canal.
Apply the drugs at right infected site is difficult.Due to this route of drug administration, the sensitivity of reaction at infected site increases.Drugs give slow or less responses.
Drugs in the form of tiny droplets are taken through the nasal and oral respiratory route by the nebulizers.It is mostly used in asthma.
This method is less toxic.Drugs are readily absorbed and are transfer to local blood circulation through liver thus it avoid the first pass effect and drugs give quick reaction
It is very expansive method and may cause irritation in air passage ways.Sometimes this method is inefficient because it may cause the irritation in nasal passage ways.
- Vaginal routes:
In this route,drugs are medicated through vagina. Drugs that are administered by this route are must be in the form of cream,gel,solutions,tablets,rings etc.
This method is used during menupause to give relief from vaginal dryness or redness.It balance the estrogen level.It is mostly used in female animals.It is costless and painfree method.No specific skills, procedure or specific equipments are required to medication.
These drugs are slowly absorbed from vagina of animals and have slow onset actions.
- Intra-cardiac routes:
In it, Drugs are given by injections that are injected from the chest wall into the heart.
It is last way of medication when all methods are failed to cure and in this method no special equipments are needed.Drugs are directly injected to the heart.This method is Easy to perform. It is helpful in emergencies for heart resuscitation .Different Methods of drug administration
It is a very painful method and also may cause deficiency of blood in pericardium.It also cause the infection in coronary artery.Its very risky method and patient feel discomforts. This method of medication is apply only on the unconscious patients. Different Methods of drug administration
- Intra-articular routes:
Injections are injected into the space of joints in this route.It is mostly used in arthritis.
These drugs are used to reduce the production of inflammatory cells and also for relieving the pain of joints.The aim of these injections is to improve the movement of joints without pain.Patient feel free from pain for a longer time period and walk easily.Different Methods of drug administration
It is a painful and expansive method.Drugs may cause skin thinning at injected site and change the colour of skin where the injection is delivered.patient feel uncomfortable.
- Intra-peritoneal routes:
In this method drugs are administered through injections that are injected into peritoneal cavity around the navel or in between navel and three section of hipbones.
This method is used for treatment to stop or avoid the distribution of peritoneal cancer.This method has less harmful conditions as compared to enteral routes.
It may cause internal injury or infection.Sometimes injections are mispalced from the right injected site,such as in bladder or any organ may cause infection in organs.
- Intra-athecal route:
In this method drugs are injected into the space around the spinal cord.
Drugs in this method are used in surgeries to avoid problems of anaesthesia. Drugs are beneficial if injected directly into of spinal cord give fast action.In this method there is no fear of vomiting.After Injected patient not feel pain for a long time.It is much better method than anaesthetize the patient.Different Methods of drug administration
It is a very painful method of administration. Drugs are not suitable if they are injected in larger volume and cause death of tissue.And skill full or expert doctors are required.After surgery patient feel pain at injected site for many years.
- Intra-dermal routes:
Injections are injected into the dermis which is a layer of tissues under the skin.
Advantages: They are used to They increase the immune responses to drugs and decrease the pain.It is used for the treatment of allergies and Tuberculosis patients.
Disadvantages: It is a painfull method and only small volumes of drugs are given.Drugs are not absorbed quickly because the skin have limited supply of blood.
Different Methods of drug administration
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See Also: Tuberculosis- A zoonotic Disease