Method Ultrasonography In Veterinary is a very commonly used technique in veterinary medicine. First of all, we should understand that what is meant by the term ultrasonography. I will cover the following topics:
- History of this technique in Veterinary.
- Working principle.
- Method in animals.
- Types of this technique in animals.
- Things that can be detected by this technique in animals.
- Things that cannot be detected by this technique
Ultrasonography is a diagnostic technique, that is used to observe the internal body organs and tissues etc. of the animals, by the use of high energy sound waves with the frequencies ranging from 1.5-15 Megahertz (MHz), that are inaudible by human beings.
The uses of ultrasonography in veterinary practice are diverse. The use of the ultrasonographic techniques to observe the tissues and internal body structures of the animals started round about in the year 1949. By the mid 1970’s , the vets in the academic centers also started to use the ultrasonography method.
- Working Principle:
The ultrasonography is a technique that uses the ultrasounds or high frequency sound waves. These ultrasonic waves are produced by the use of piezo-electronic crystals. These piezo-electric crystals are kept in a transducer.
When these crystals are bombarded electronically, they emit high frequency sound waves. These ultrasonic waves enter in to the body of the animals. Then these high frequency sound waves are reflected back from different internal parts/ tissues differently.
These echoes are then received by the receiver. The receiver sends these signals to the ultrasonography machine, which then converts these signals into the form of the images on the screen.
The penetration of the ultrasonic waves is in inverse proportion to their frequency. It means that higher the frequency of the crystals, lower the penetration. Thus, keeping in mind this information, we must consider as which transducer is to be used in observing the specific type of the organ or tissues, that is by keeping in mind its penetrating ability.
Various internal parts observed under the Ultrasound appear to be of the following color on the screen.
- The fluid appears to be of the black color on the screen.
- Tissues are absorbed as shades of grey on the screen.
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- Method Ultrasonography In Veterinary:
The method of conducting ultrasonography varies from animal to animal and it also varies with the organ/tissue to be observed. But the general procedure that is used in the ultrasonography of animals is described as follows:
- Lay down the animal (if small animal) on a flat surface.
- Then place the transducer on the part to be examined.
- Transmission gel can also be rubbed on the animal’s body surface (if required) for increasing the accuracy of ultrasonography.
- Move the transducer on the animal’s body surface and observe the image on the screen.
- Types in animals:
The following types of ultrasonography are used in the veterinary practice:
- Ultrasonic evaluation of Heart:
In this type of ultrasonography, heat is observed. This method is accomplished by using the M-mode format of display of ultrasound information. A beam of ultrasound is projected into the heart and the echo pattern is observed on a screen.
- Doppler Ultrasound:
It is the type of ultrasonography in which a moving image of the internal organs of the body is formed o the screen, rather than a moving line or still image.
- Contrast Ultrasound:
In this type, the microscopic bubbles of contrast agents are injected into the blood plasma. These contrast agents become part of the blood plasma and they enhance the blood reflectivity. This technique enables the examination of tissue on the basis of its vascularity. Method Ultrasonography In Veterinary
- Things that can be detected in animal body using this technique:
The following things and the following types of diseases can be detected by using the ultrasonography in animals:
- Kidney stones.
- Pregnancy in animals
- Stones in Gall bladder of animals.
- Cancers in body of animal.
- Various tumors in tissues.
- Portosystemic shunts
- Small metallic objects, if wrongly ingested by animals.
- Evaluation of soft tissues of the musculoskeletal system.
- Things that cannot be detected in animal body using this technique:
Following things cannot be detected by using the Method Ultrasonography In Veterinary:
- Gas-filled tissues.
- Bowel gas inhibits the internal organs of abdomen to be examined.
Method Ultrasonography In Veterinarytechnique has the following advantages:
- Faster and an affordable method.
- It doesn’t involves use of harmful radiations.
- As, X-rays emit harmful radiations, so this makes ultrasonography an effective method of examination of internal organs, without causing any harm to the body of the animal.
- Soft tissues can be differentiated from the fluid.
Method Ultrasonography In Veterinary generally does not have much disadvantages, except for that; it cannot be used to observe the gas filled structures and that the quality of the image produced in the ultrasonography depends upon the skill of the operator, that is performing the ultrasonography of the animal
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