Principles of clean Milk Production
principles of clean milk production is important to study these days. The Principles of clean milk production are very necessary to understand. Milk is sterile product when secreted in udder of a healthy animal. Since more then 65% of all animals protein principle of clean milk production come from dairy products, it is important to ensure that consumer get only the best quality. we should check the clean milk production and notices its principle how we make it clean
Reasons for implementation of principle
now we discussed the principle of clean milk production.Here are some reason for implementation of principles of clean milk production.
- Dirty milk is a rish medium for transmission of zoonotic disease
- Spread of infectious diseases like tuberculosis and Diphtheria etc can be controlled by using clean milk.
- The government will lose revenue from dairy sub-sector.
- For becoming more satisfied farmer you should produce clean milk it will ensure you that your customers are getting best product.
Principles of clean milk production
There are following measures that should implement at every stage to ensure the best quality milk.
1- Managing the animal at the Farm :
Sterile milk is present in the udder of healthy animal.Contamination begins almost immediately when the milk leave the udder as the contaminants get into the milk.
The bacteria that get entry into the milk will deteriorate the quality of milk and effects its suitability for processing into finished product. Pasteurize the milk to kill the bacteria that spoliage the product .Pasteurisation does not kill the spores which can germinate and still cause the spoliage . Some bacteria will produce toxins which are very stable and does not kill during pasteurisation.principle of clean milk productionis necessary for health.
- Feeding the animal for vlean milk production is important because feeding is a central activity in dairy animal management.
- Ensure the feed and fodder are free from pesticides, aflatoxins,herbicides and insecticides.
- Animals feed should be store at minimum allowable moisture content.
- Avoid the animal from eating silage and wet crop residues during milking to avoid the milk from imparting any off-flavour.
- Ensure the adequate supply of mineral and vitamins in nutrition of animal.
- Proper housing of animal for clean milk production is essential as the animal shed is a major source of contamination at the farm due to dust ,mud,dung and urine.
- The cow shed should be well constructed and well drained to avoid ward of extreme weather and stagnation of water respectively.
- All remains of food, fodder should be removed quickly.
- Overlay the windows with wire mesh and net to avoid the flies of every information.
- Design the farm in this style in which to facilitate the easy access of big feed store .
- Each animal should have enough space for feeding, eating drinking sleeping and exercising.
- Animals health management for clean milk production is important as the primary source of clean milk is healthy animal required.
- Examine the animal regularly to ensure the animals are free from contagious diseases such as mastitis and TB etc.
- Identify the sick animal and separate it from healthy animals.Treat the sick animla separately and always milk the sick animal at last.
- The animal suffering from contagious diseases must be kept away from healthy animal in separate place.
- In case of Foot and mouth disease (FMD) and Anthrax , vaccinate the animal regularly.
- Use disposable towels while cleaning the udders.
2-Managing the somatic cell counts:
- The somatic cell count (SCC) is a very reliable indicator for quality of milk.
- High SCC is due to the leukocytes which are released into the animal’s system as an immune responce to an infection.
- Mastitis is the major cause for high SCC as Mastitis infection will alters the milk composition and reduce the milk yield .
- Any injury to udder will lead to increase in SCC since the animla’s immune system produce leukocytes to response against infection.
3-Managing the hygiene of milking equipments and utensils:
- Many utensils and equipments are used to handle milk at farm.
- The milking machines, piping system, bulking tank,teat cups ,milk churns and pails are all critical points of milk contamination at the farm.
- Clean the utensils regularly to avoid the accumulation of dirt which may encourage the bacterial growth.
- Sanitize all the surface that come in contact with milk.
- Use detergents for equipments and utensils.
4-Managing hygiene for clean milk production:
Hygiene is key to determining the clean milk .
Following are some important measures that can implement to improve hygiene at the farm;
- Do not sweep the floor while milking as it may introduce pathogens into the milk.
- The milkers should be healthy and having no disease.
- Milker should not smoke near milking parlor.
- The milker must wash his hand with soap before milking.And dry his hand with disposable towel.
- Clean the udder before start milking. Use portable and clean water.
- Every milking session, should last an average of seven minutes.
- Strain the milk with clean stranier after each milking.
5-Milk cooling for Clean milk production :
- Under the warm temperature bacteria will replicate rapidly. It is Necessary to chill the milk to arrest the activities of bacteria.Chilling milk enhance the quality of milk.Cooling the milk through refrigerator is nore obvious but every Farmer may not have refrigerator facilities. In such cases farmer can use a home made charcoal cooler or use chilled water.
- Colling the milk to less then 5°C immediately after each milking.As most bacteria will not multiple at this temperature.
- Ensure the cooling of milk immediately after milking because if you wait it will develop acidity which cannot be removed by cooling .
- If farmer do not have cooling facilities then deliver the milk within two hours after milking to the dairy plant .