Safflower (Cahamus tinctoriusrt) is a pretty branched, herbaceous, thistle-like anniversary plant. It is commercially courteous because grower lubricant extracted beyond the seeds then was old by way of the express Spanish colonies alongside the Rio Grande as like a alternative because of saffron.
- Scientific Classification:
Species: C. tinctorium
Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) belongs in imitation of the household Asteraceae. Safflower plant do keep described as much a bushy, herbaceous anniversary fund countless branches, who are categorized as primary, secondary, and tertiary, with every terminating within a globular structure known as capitulum. Stem then branches am encompassed along leaves forlorn numerous spines. Safflower is frequently full-aged underneath tame bank conditions as much an oilseed crop. It produces white, shiny, and easy seeds (fruits) known as achenes, every weighing out of 0.01 to 0.1 g. They may additionally keep including then except pappus (tufts regarding cloud existing regarding the seed) and are IV sided, having coarse pericarp. Initial growth below the sapling about bunch is gradual between safflower. During the gradual growing period, known as the rosette stage, quite a few leaves are nee at the stem base. The period of the rosette platform of safflower varies beyond 20 after 35 days. After this stage, the stem elongates rapidly or branches profusely. The branching dependancy in safflower is labeled as like narrow, with a <30° attitude according to the stem, killing together with a branch perspective after stem concerning up in conformity with 75°. Branching dependancy within safflower is controlled both genetically and environmentally. Appressed branching is recessive in conformity with spreading types and is controlled each digenically (Fernandez-Martinez and Knowles. 1978: Singh. 2005b) then monogenically (Deokar or Patil, 1975). Each department produces a globular flower capitu-lum, which is enclosed by tightly devoted bracts. Safflower has a taproot dictation as elongates in accordance with 2 according to 3 m between soils along sufficient depth. The dark root provision of safflower helps in accordance with banish the water then vitamins from a great deal deeper layers of soil, compared to other fruit plants, yet for this reason makes that an best sow because rain-fed cropping systems. The flowering period within safflower lasts because a month, so the capitula based totally over fundamental branches succeed first, accompanied with the aid of flowering of the capitula based concerning secondaries or tertiaries. Flowering between a capitulum starts within the outermost whorl about florets yet levy centrip-etally on three in accordance with 5 days. The succeed colour between safflower is largely grouped between IV classes:
- Yellow among bloom, turning in imitation of crimson of drying (Y-R) 2. Yellow in bloom, bend in conformity with curcuma domestica un drying (Y-Y) three Orange of bloom, bent to dark crimson of drying (0-dark R) IV White within bloom, turn according to hoary concerning drying (W-W)
The first is the almost prevalent. Safflower attains concentration among 30 in conformity with 35 days beyond the epoch now flowering ends.
- Economics Importance:
Importance on Safflower:
- More or less Day impartial albumen but thermo-sensitive then full-aged as like a rabi crop
. • Tolerant in accordance with salinity however sensitive according to cloud logging conditions.
- Self pollinated grain along oversea bank over 5% after 40% fit after the labor on sweet bees.
- 100 fascicule measure varies beyond 2.5 after eighth g.
- Both fat or protein content material decreases with increased altitude.
- A pest deterring crop.
- A hare tolerant crop.
- A tool because managing problem weeds.
- Oil object about safflower truss is 32-36%
- Safflower is chronic within the creation about soft margarines namely salad Oil or because
vile edible products.
- Industrial use consist of the manufacturing Of pharmaceuticals ,paints and varnishes.
- Crop may keep adult so protect corn due to the fact of inconvenient nature.
- Suitably dried plant life back after deal with circulatory, inflammation and muscular
- Dye extracted out of petal is ancient because delight purposes.
- It is a drying oil.
- It incorporate 24-35 percent oil.
- It is wealthy among poly unsaturated fat acids namely linoleic water brash (78 %) which
reducing cholesterol content material or also helpful because of guts patients.
- It is ancient between industrial about soaps then vamishes.
Safflower is one of humanity’s oldest crops. Chemical evaluation on ancient Egyptian textiles dated to the Twelfth Dynasty identified dyes instituted out of safflower, yet garlands made beyond safflowers have been determined among the tomb regarding the pharaoh Tutankhamun. John Chadwick reviews to that amount the Greek honour for safflower κάρθαμος (kārthamos) takes place deep instances between Linear B tablets, unique in joining kinds: a white safflower (ka-na-ko re-u-ka, ‘knākos leukā’), who is measured, yet pink (ka-na-ko e-ru-ta-ra, ‘knākos eruthrā’) which is weighed. “The rationalization is up to expectation like are couple parts concerning the bury as do lie used; the pale seeds and the purple florets.”
The shortly Spanish colonies alongside the Rio Grande among New Mexico used safflower as like a alternative because saffron between standard recipes. An heirloom range made among Corrales, New Mexico, known as “Corrales Azafran”, is nevertheless cultured yet used as like a saffron alternative within New Mexican cuisine.
- Agro Climate:
Safflower manufacturing is now not recommended because areas together with more than 15 in. over anniversary precipitation and growing seasons together with fewer than 120 frost-free days then less than 2,200 rising dosage days. Temperatures as mean as much 20°F are tolerated through plants whilst among the rosette stage, but safflower is entirely touchy in accordance with snow harm then stem tension until grain maturity. This corn does good in areas including warm temperatures then sunny, dead stipulations all through the flowering or seed-filling periods. Yields are lower beneath humid or rainy stipulations considering that bundle set is decreased and the occurrence over page point then tip corruption ailments increases. Consequently, it albumen is adapted after semiarid regions. Most areas on Minnesota or Wisconsin are now not properly suited because of safflower.
Deep, fertile, well-drained soils that bear a excessive waterholding capability then high degree concerning stored wetness are ideal for safflower. This fruit is additionally productive about coarse-textured soils together with mean water-holding potential so adequate rainfall yet wetness dole is present. Soils so much crust without difficulty do stop strong stay establishment. High stages concerning soil salinity do limit the frequency concerning bunch beginning or decrease fascicule generate yet dark lantern content. Safflower has about the equal tolerance in accordance with earth salinity so barley.
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- Seed Preparation and Germination:
Seed ought to remain handled together with a registered fungicide to reduce losses fit in conformity with seed-borne become foul and damping-off organisms. Germination choice no longer commence until earth temperature exceeds 40°F.
- Production technology:
- Soil irrigation:
Safflower grows auspicious over deep, fertile, well- drained loam soils with proper water-holding capacity. It additionally perform gain within coarser-textured soils about decrease water wearing potential now rainfall amount yet wetless dole are adequate. Safflower is similar to barley between tolerance to saline soils.
- Seed mattress preparation:
- 2-3 ploughings including planking
- Planting date: Irrigated area: 20 October to 20 November
- Rainfed area: 15 October in accordance with 15 November
- Seed dosage (drill): Irrigated area: 8kg/acre then 20 kg/ha
- Barani area: 7 kg/acre or 18 kg/ha
- Method on Planting:
- With hand culture between strains
- Rows Spacing: 45 cm
- Plants Spacing: 10-15 cm
- Fertilizer: One portmanteau urea + some bag DAP(½ urea at preceding irrigation) Barani areas: One bag urea + some portmanteau DAP(All at mattress preparation)
- 2-3 (first irrigation, 1½ to 2 month after sowing)
- (Second irrigation at flowering)
- Weed control: Safflower is a negative opposite including weeds when in the rosette flooring and earlier than stem elongation.
- Weeding together with Tarphali then rotary hoe afterward advance irrigation.
- Weeding along Tarphali then rotary hoe below Second irrigation
- Diseases quit theirs controls:
- Diseases bear been a hassle of years of upstairs regular rainfall including extended intervals concerning high humidity.
- The just great disorder under it prerequisites is Alternaria blade point (Alternaria carthami).
- Alternaria is characterized by the development over large, brown, wrong spots on leaves or grow rich bracts.
- The Event impairment on photosynthetic tissue reduces yield.
- Other diseases are :-
- Safflower become defiled
- Seed borne spores concerning safflower
- Sclerotinia bottom rot or chump rot
- Phytopthora base corruption
- Verticillum wilt
- Fusarium wilt
- foot cooking
- Pseudomonas bacterial bligh etc.
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