Dairy Farm Management Training Manual

Dairy Farm Management Training Manual

Dairy Farm Management is decision making process in which the available but the limited production resources are allocate to be selected production possible, so as to operate the farm business in such a way that to achieve some set of the objectives.

Dairy Farm Management Functions:

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  • Planning
  • Implementation
  • Monitoring & Evaluation

planning is the major function of the dairy farm management. It is decided advance what to do when to do and how to do. Planning is also the systematic thinking about ways and means for attainment of pre determine goals.

The planning function of dairy farm management includes following components:

Strategy design

Evaluating internal and external situation of the dairy Farm: The planning process should be starts from the Evaluation. Evaluation looks at the whole farm system to identify and prioritized the key issues opportunities and options for change.

Setting Objectives: objective is the specific result that a person or a system and business entity would like to achieve in a specific period and with allocate resources of dairy farm. In dairy farm management objectives setting could be done from the enterprise dairy farm as whole but also for the specific components of the dairy farm.

Strategy DESIGN:  Strategy is the method or approach chose to bring the achievement of the desired result and objectives and strategy plan.

IMPLEMENTATION: implementation is the execution of the planned activities as per the scheduled and allocate the resources to bring the intended results. Fulfill the necessary human resources require to be realize the farm objectives organize and leading of the human farm resources is the effective way.


Evaluate and control of the function of dairy farm management include the three steps: Measure the performance comparison of the plan versus achievement and taking a corrective action.

The following figure provides summary of the evaluation and control process:

Key Activities in the evaluation and control function:

  • Determine if the farm is achieving objectives that should be desired.
  • Doing periodic gap between analysis that what is planned.
  • Ensure appropriate control mechanism for the different management of the farms.
  • Find and share farm best practice.

Key performance indicators:

  KPI are diagnostic tools allowing dairy farmers to improve their farm. KPI provide good insight about efficient utilization of the farm resources and farm personal skills. Farmers can be used the KPI to identify weaknesses.


 Farm Management AREAS: There are seven major dairy farm management areas. A farmer should take care. The diagram below show all these of the management areas.

Forage Production Management:  Forage production management can be covers all activities from seed to feed including the major agronomic type practices for the forage production forage conservation storage and feed supply.

Objectives: The main objective is to ensuring year around the forage supply for the farm and covering most feed from on the farm forage production.


  • Selection of the appropriate forage species for the forage production, needed to a biomass and nutritive value for the different dairy types farms.
  • Manage the Forage with a good agronomy practices to optimizing growth & quality.
  • Ensuring year around which forage can supplies.

Feed and Nutrition Management:

Feed and nutrition management is the process of understanding the nutrient requirement of dairy cattle at different growth and the lactation stage and combine various feed ingredients to meet these needs in the cost effective manner.

Objectives:  1. Keep the dairy cows in good condition. 2.  Maximizing the milk production and potential of dairy farm. 3. Fulfilling need of the nutrient.

Key Activities:

Fertility Management:

Good fertility management potentially the one of the most accurate means of improving the sustainability, efficiency and profit of dairy farm.

Objectives:  1. To produce good replacement. 2. To improve dairy and the herd productivity.

Key Activities:

  • Identifying the breeding objectives and cost effective efficient breeding options.
  • The nutritive requirement for reproduction should also adequately supplied.
  • Accurate record for the reproductive status for efficient of the fertility management.
  • Milking cows need to well feed to rebreed.

Youngstock Management: Sufficient youngstock rearing will means that no animals need to bought to from outside of the farm. These will reduce the risk of brining diseases to the farm and can also be increased the farm profit and sustainability.

Objectives: 1. Rearing enough young stock in order to all culled dairy cow replace.

  1. Reducing average age at first stage of calving. 3. Reducing calving morality rate which can up to the 2 weeks of age.

Key Activities:

  • Calves should must born under hygienic condition.
  • Calves should must given good quality drink early in their lives.
  • The calve should be sprayed with iodine solution immediately after birth.

Health Management: Health Management can be very important to ensure that the optimal care and well-being of dairy cattle and reduce the losses in productivity caused by mismanagement and disease.

Objectives: 1.  Keeping animals in good health condition and improve welfare of the animals. 2. Reduce the production losses which is as a result of health problems.

Key Activities:

  • Regular and scheduled monitoring of health condition of dairy animals.
  • Detecting the health problems before they become economically is significant.

Hygienic Milk Production and Marketing:

Objectives:  1. To ensure milk are produced in the clean and hygienic conditions so that it can be fit for the human consumption. 2. To minimize economic losses due to because of milk.

Key Activities :

  • Ensure the proper feeding and housing for the clean and safe milk production.
  • Cows should kept clean and a dry under the comfortable condition.
  • Reference: Book Dairy farm management training package for dairy extension workers www.snv.org.    FOR MORE; CLICK HERE 

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