History of Phyto bacteriology in molecular Plant Pathology

History of Phyto bacteriology in molecular Plant Pathology

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Phyto bacteriology Plant Pathology is the branch of bacteriology that deals with the study of organisms associated with or pathogenic for plants.

Father of Phytobacteriology:

1901 _ 1920 E.F Smith of U.S.A gave the final proof of the fact that bacteria could be incitants of plant disease. He also worked on the bacterial wilt of cucurbits and crown gall diseases. He is called as” Father of Phytobacteriology”.

History Of Phyto bacteriology:

Plants just like animals and plants can be affected by several diseases caused by bacteria. For a long, these bacterial diseases did not receive the attention they deserved, as compared to more numerous fungal diseases of plants. Bacterial diseases, however, can be as disastrous especially because direct control is impossible in many cases.  In human and animal health the situation is reversed. There, fungal diseases form a minority and they are difficult to control. The study of bacterial plant pathogens and bacterial plant diseases is called Phyto bacteriology. The Dutchman Jan Hendrick Wakker (1859_ 1927) was the first to try to prove that bacteria cause plant diseases by following Koch’s postulates. This student of botanist Hugo de Vries and mycologist Anton de Bary, investigated, Yellow disease of Hyacinthus and its causal agent which he called Bacterium hyacinths now (  Xanthomonas hyacinth ) describing in 1883.  This was only 7 years after Robert Kotch (1843 _1910) proved that bacteria could cause diseases (1876, experiments with the anthrax Bacterium Bacillus anthracite Three years before Wakker in 1880 the American Thomas J. Burrill ( 1839 _ 1916 ) had already provided evidence, by microscopic observation and experiments, with pieces of diseased tissues that bacteria could cause fire blight of apple and pear.  The founder of Phytobacteriology was American Erwin F. Smith (1854 _ 1938 ). He described a large number of plant diseases, including their pathology, isolated the causal bacteria in pure culture performed inoculation, and developed methods.  C. Stapp in Germany, E. Hellmers in Denmark, and W. Dowson in England followed his footsteps. Up to the 1950s, Phyto bacteriology was mainly descriptive. How much this has changed and how sophisticated some parts of it become illustrated by the subjects of Proceedings of International Conferences on Plant Pathogenic bacteria ( eg. Lemattret al.. 1994  D.e Boer, 2000.

Phyto bacteriology Plant Pathology

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Phytopathogenic Bacteria:

Bacteria that cause plant diseases or Germ positive or negative rods except for Streptomyces spp. that are filamentous.  They are found in the genera Acidovorax, Agrobacterium ( Rhyzobactirum) Arthrobacter. Most plant pathogenic bacteria are intercellular (living between plant cells) and or necrotrophic (living on kill cells) pathogen.


Steps in the diagnosis of bacterial plant diseases


Symptoms of bacterial plant diseases
  1. Assessment of symptoms
  2. Isolation of pathogenic bacteria
  3. Pure culture of isolated bacteria
  4.  Identification of pure culture
  5.  Pathogenicity tests
  6.  Reisolation from inoculated plants
  7.  Reidentification of reisolate
  8.  Diagnosis report.
  1.  Leaf spots
  2.  Excrescences and galls
  3.  Tumors
  4.  Wilting (vascular diseases)
  5.  Necrosis and cankers
  6.  Rotting
  7.  Bacteria embedded in slime.

History of Phyto bacteriology in molecular Plant Pathology

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