Hypomagnesemia treatment and symptoms

Hypomagnesemia treatment and symptoms

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Magnesium is essential   part of general nerve control,   Bone mineral configuration and muscle function. But due to some factor ruminant could not intake proper quantity of magnesium. And deficiency of magnesium cause a disease which is known as hypomagnesemia-magnesium deficiency.   This disease is also known by some other words like spring tetany, grass staggers and wheat pasture poisoning.


  • In early lactation in beef and cow, magnesium is needed lager quantity. But in response magnesium in the body cannot meet this requirement due to which hypomagnesemia occur. Incidentally concerned animal have low blood calcium.
  • By eating up small grains and cereals (oat, wheat, barley, rye).
  • In late winter and early spring grasses concentration of magnesium is low because plants cannot get magnesium from water logged soils.
  • Concentration of magnesium is lower and concentration of Potassium and nitrogen higher in rapidly growing spring grasses.
  • By use of fertilizer concentration magnesium decreases because uptake of magnesium is stopped by potassium .Hypomagnesemia treatment


  • Sometimes death of ruminant occur without any threatening sign. It happens in old lactating beef cows due to lack of minerals, four to eight after giving birth to calf.
  • Soil around the animal show convulsion before death.
  • At intensive stage ruminant show nervousness.
  • Nonstop contraction of muscle results in rigidity of muscles.
  • Blood concentration below 1.1mg/ dL indicates clinical signs.
  • Jerky motion of facial muscle, flank and shoulder due to ucontrolled activation of peripheral nervous.
  • Affected ruminant separates from the group.
  • Cow move and jump suddenly.
  • Display grinding of teeth.
  • Cow show aggressive behavior.
  • Cow may stagger and fall due to continuous loss of magnesium from the blood.
  • Heart beat 150 beats/minute, Respiratory rate 60 breath/minute and bod temperature 105 degree F.
  • Milk production decreases. Hypomagnesemia treatment


  • Diagnosis is not easier because animal dies before determination.
  • History of disease, low magnesium concentration are the factors on which diagnosis based.
  • Measure Urinary magnesium is the best diagnostic method.
  • Hypomagnesemia-magnesium deficiency is frequently is mistaken for other metabolic disease in animal


  • Animal affected by hypomagnesemia-magnesium deficiency is in need of instant
  • 5 to 2.5 grams of magnesium intravenously is preferred for an adult.
  • Calm by veterinarian is needed to minimize the risk of injury.
  • At least one hour is required for the recovery of animal.
  • During this time CSF magnesium level return to normal.
  • Most animals return to this disease and require more treatment within 12 hours.
  • Rate of relapse can be minimize by conducting oral magnesium gel once the animal regained good swallowing or drenching with magnesium oxide or magnesium sulfate.
  • If one animal among the group of animals is affected by hypomagnesemia than intake of magnesium of other animals should   be increase.



Prevention & Control:

  • When conditions of hypomagnesemia exits, than provide high concentration of soluble magnesium to the animals.
  • There should be no problem during active transport for magnesium.
  • Due to high concentration of potassium pump cannot work properly than the second option is passive absorption.
  • Passive absorption needed high concentration gradient.
  • By access amount of magnesium in the diet high rumen magnesium level is achieved.
  • At least 30 days prior to the calving, provide high magnesium supplement to animal for the prevention of hypomagnesemia.
  • Requirement of magnesium for cow during late winter or early spring is 17 to 20g daily or 4 ounces per day of 15% magnesium mix mineral.
  • For beef cattle 14% magnesium in the trace mineral mix and all from magnesium oxide(Instead of dolomitic lime stone or magnesium mica).

Some other factors that can control Hypomagnesemia:

  • Teat soil and apply magnesium in the field according to requirement.
  • Use of legumes may be helpful because these are high in magnesium.
  • Limited grazing for specific time period.
  • Prefer grazing to non-lactating animals.

Hypomagnesemia – magnesium deficiency

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